Lean manufacturing is a production philosophy that focuses on eliminating waste and optimizing processes. Waste refers to inefficiencies that increase costs and reduce quality in any production process. By reducing these wastes, companies can improve efficiency, save resources, and deliver higher-quality products.



The foundation of lean manufacturing lies in identifying and eliminating 7 types of waste, each representing an opportunity for improvement in production. In this article, we will explore each of these 7 wastes in detail and provide practical tips on how to address them.

1. Overproduction

The waste of overproduction is one of the primary enemies of efficiency in manufacturing. It occurs when production exceeds what is needed or is ready before it is needed. This excess production can lead to unsold inventory accumulation, increased storage costs, and the waste of valuable resources.

Examples of how overproduction affects a company

  • A factory produces a batch of 1000 units of a product before receiving customer orders, leading to excess unsold inventory and storage costs.
  • A restaurant prepares a large amount of food before customers order it, resulting in food waste and financial losses.

Tips for reducing overproduction

  • Implement "pull" systems that produce only when there is real demand.
  • Use accurate forecasting and just-in-time scheduling to avoid overproduction.
  • Establish effective communication between departments to coordinate production based on demand.
  • Promote production flexibility to adapt to changes in market demand.

2. Inventory

Inventory waste refers to excess stored products or materials. This can lead to unnecessary storage costs, obsolescence, and difficulty identifying quality issues. Lean manufacturing advocates for maintaining the minimum inventory necessary to meet demand.

Examples of issues related to excess inventory

  • A retail store has an excess of last season's clothing inventory, leading to significant discounts and profit losses.
  • A factory stores a large quantity of defective parts, making it difficult to identify production problems.

Strategies to manage inventory efficiently

  • Use inventory management systems and tracking technology to control and adjust inventory in real-time.
  • Implement a just-in-time policy to minimize unnecessary storage.
  • Regularly review and dispose of obsolete or damaged inventory.
  • Collaborate with suppliers to reduce lead times and maintain low inventory levels.

3. Transportation

Transportation waste occurs when materials or products are moved from one place to another. This not only adds costs but can also cause damage to products.

Instances where transportation harms manufacturing

  • A logistics company sends products through multiple locations before reaching their final destination, increasing shipping costs.
  • A factory inefficiently moves materials from one plant to another, resulting in delays and damage.

Ways to minimize transportation waste

  • Redesign the plant layout to minimize transportation distances.
  • Use storage systems near the production line.
  • Use more efficient transportation routes and coordinate deliveries.
  • Evaluate the need for transportation and reduce unnecessary transfers.

4. Motion

Motion waste refers to the movements of workers or machinery in the workplace. These movements can result in fatigue and injuries, as well as decreased efficiency.

Examples of how worker motion can be a problem

  • An assembly line worker has to walk long distances to retrieve necessary parts, reducing productivity.
  • In an office, employees constantly search for documents in a disorganized file, increasing search time.

Tips to optimize motion in production

  • Design ergonomic workstations to reduce the need for excessive movements.
  • Implement a 5S system (sort, set in order, shine, standardize, sustain) to organize and keep the workplace clean.
  • Train employees in efficient work techniques.
  • Conduct workflow analysis to identify and eliminate unnecessary movements.

5. Waiting

Waiting waste occurs when employees or equipment are idle due to a lack of materials, information, or resources. This decreases productivity and increases costs.

Examples of situations where waiting is a problem

  • An auto repair shop experiences waiting times when spare parts are missing, delaying repairs.
  • A software development team must wait for a manager's approval before progressing with a project, slowing down the process.

Strategies to reduce waiting in manufacturing

  • Implement scheduling and tracking systems that minimize waiting times.
  • Maintain effective communication between departments and teams to ensure everyone is informed and prepared.
  • Store spare parts and critical materials on-site to reduce delays.
  • Automate processes when possible to reduce reliance on manual approvals.

6. Extra-processing

Extra-processing waste occurs when more steps or processes are performed than necessary to produce a product. This not only increases costs but can also reduce quality by introducing opportunities for errors.

Examples of unnecessary processes that consume resources

  • A manufacturing company uses a complicated welding process when a simpler one would be equally effective.
  • An accounting department conducts a thorough review of every invoice, even when the amount is small and doesn't require a detailed check.

Recommendations to eliminate extra-processing

  • Conduct value analysis to identify and eliminate unnecessary steps in the production process.
  • Standardize processes to ensure the most efficient methods are followed.
  • Train employees to identify non-value-added activities.
  • Encourage continuous improvement to constantly review and optimize processes.

7. Defects

Defect waste results from products or services that do not meet quality standards. This leads to additional costs, such as rework, and the loss of customers due to defective products.

Instances where the presence of defects hinders production

  • A factory produces a batch of defective products that require rework, increasing costs.
  • A restaurant serves food with order errors, leading to customer dissatisfaction and the need to remake the order.

List of techniques to reduce and prevent defects

  • Implement quality control systems that continuously monitor production.
  • Train employees in high-quality work practices and quality control.
  • Foster a culture of defect prevention within the organization.
  • Conduct root cause analysis to identify the sources of defects and take corrective actions.

While the 7 mentioned wastes are the most well-known, there is an eighth waste that has gained increasing importance in recent years. It focuses on Talent and how, in many cases, this valuable resource is underutilized or not adequately leveraged. In organizations, it is essential to thoroughly understand employees, their capabilities, knowledge, and experiences, as all of this could be better employed in other areas of the process.



Lean manufacturing aims to identify and eliminate waste at all stages of production. By efficiently addressing the 7 wastes, companies can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and deliver high-quality products. Implementing strategies such as reducing overproduction, managing inventory efficiently, optimizing transportation, and minimizing unnecessary motion are crucial steps toward a more efficient operation.

With a constant focus on waste elimination, organizations can thrive in a competitive market and effectively meet customer demands.


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